CCS Readings

Critical Code Studies Working Group 2012 – Bibliography
[Originally compiled by Jason Lipshin]
Suggest additional titles for future updates in the comments below.
Also, please see the Critical Code Studies zotero group library

Aarseth, Espen. Cybertext. Johns Hopkins UP, Baltimore, 1997.

Abadi, Martin and Luca Cardelli. A Theory of Objects. New York: Springer, 1996.

Adam, Alison. “Lists” Software Studies.

Bentley, Peter et al. Ars Electronica 2003: Code:The Language of Our Time. Hatje Cantz Publishers, 2003. Print.

Berry, David. M. “A Contribution Towards a Grammar of Code.” Fibreculture Journal 13 : n. pag. Web. 9 Nov 2009.

— “Iteracy: Reading, Writing and Running Code.” Stunlaw: A Critical Review of Politics, Art and Technology, September 16, 2011.

Black, Maurice J. The Art of Code. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, 2002.

Blas, Zach. “Queer Technologies / transCoder / Sketches / About.” Queer Technologies / Transcoder / Sketches / About. Web. 8 Sept 2010.

Bodanis, David. E=MC2: A Biography of the World’s Most Famous Equation. New York: Berkley Trade, 2001.

Bogost, Ian. Unit Operations: An Approach to Videogame Criticism. The MIT Press, 2008. Print.

Cailliau, Robert. “A Little History of the World Wide Web” W3C, 1995.

Campbell-Kelly, Martin. From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

Carlyle, Leslie. “Van Gogh’s Paint-Was it Special?” Conservation Matters Lecture. Getty Museum. Los Angeles, California. 19 October, 2006.

Cayley, John. “Coding as Practice.” Web. 29 Sept 2009.

– “The Code is not the Text (unless it is the text)” Electronic Book Review. 10 September 2002. 1 April 2005.

Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong, and Thomas Keenan. New Media, Old Media: A History and Theory Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong. Control and Freedom: Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.

—. Programmed Visions: Software and Memory. The MIT Press, 2011. Print. “Stroking the Keys” Sexuality in the Age of Fiber Optics.

—. “On Software: Or the Persistence of Visual Knowledge,” JSTOR: Grey Room, No. 18 (Winter, 2004), pp. 26-51. Web. 29 June 2010.

Coleman, G. “CODE IS SPEECH: Legal Tinkering, Expertise, and Protest Among Free and Open Source Software Developers.” Cultural Anthropology 24.3 (2009) : 420. Print.

Cox, Geoff, Alex McLean, and Adrian Ward. “The Aesthetics of Generative Code” Generative Art 00 conference. Politecnico di Milano, Italy, 2001. 24 November 2006.

Cox, Geoff and Adrian Ward. “Perl” Software Studies.

Cramer, Florian. “Digital Code and Literary Text” Beehive. 4:3. 2001. 4 June 2005.

– Words Made flesh: Code, Culture, Imagination 6/2005, Media Design Research, Piet Zwart Institute Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2005. 23 November 2006.

Dijkstra, Edsger W. “Go to Statements Considered Harmful,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 11, no. 3 (1968), pp. 147-148.

Douglass, Jeremy. “Critical Code Studies Conference – Week Two Discussion.” Electronic Book Review : n. pag. Web. 31 May 2011.

Dworkin, Craig. Parse. Atelos. Berkeley, 2008. (This is a translation/rendering into grammatical terms of Edwin A. Abbot’s How to Parse: An Attempt to Apply the Principles of Scholarship to English, 1874).

Ellen Ullman, The Bug, NY: Anchor Books, 2004.

Engelbart, Douglass and William English. “A Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect” Stanford Research Institute, 1968.

Fitzpatrick, Peter and Alan Hunt. “Critical Legal Studies: Introduction”Journal of Law and Society. (14:1) 1987. 1-3.

Fry, Benjamin. “Organic Information Design” MIT Media Lab. Master’s Thesis. 1997.

Fuller, Matthew. “It Looks Like You’re Writing a Letter” in Behind the Blip: Essays on the Culture of Software. Brooklyn: Autonomedia, 2003. Print.

—. Software Studies: A Lexicon. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008. Print.

Genette, Gerard. Mimologiques: Voyage en Cratylie. Paris: Editions de Seuil, 1976
Galloway, Alexander. “Language Wants to be Overlooked: On Software and
Ideology,” Journal of Visual Culture 5, no. 3 (2006): 315–331.

Glaser, Anton. History of Binary and other Nondecimal Numeration. Revised Edition. Tomash Publishers, 1981.

Glazier, Loss Pequeño. “Code As Language” Leonardo Electronic Almanac. 14:05-06. September 2006. 2 November 2006.

– Digital Poetics: The Making of E-Poetries. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2001.

Goldberg, Ken. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2001.

Graham, Peter S. “Building the Digital Research Library: Preservation and Access at the Heart of Scholarship” Folett Lecture Series. UKOLN. Leicester University, 19 March 1997. Accessed 10 March 2006.

Harrison, Robert. Réflexions sur l’Internet – Michel Serres. Entitled Opinions (about Life and Literature). Standford, December 9, 2008. (Available on iTunes U).

Hayles, Katherine. “Intermediation: Textuality and the Regime of Computation” and “Speech, Writing, Code: Three World Views.” My Mother Was a Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Web. 19 Nov. 2010.

– “Print is Flat, Code is Deep: The Importance of Media Specific Analysis” Poetics Today. (25:1) 2004. 67-90.

Hofstadter, Douglas R. and the Fluid Analogies Research Group. Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought. New York: Basic Books, 1995.

Jerz, Dennis G. “Somewhere Nearby Is Colossal Cave: Examining Will Crowther’s Original Adventure in Code and in Kentucky.” DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly 1.2 (2007) : n. pag. Web. 13 Oct 2009.

Kay, Alan C. The Early History of Smalltalk. ACM. 1993.

Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. “Extreme Inscription — Towards a Grammatology of the Hard Drive” TEXT Technology. 91:2. 2004. 16 October 2006.

—. Mechanisms: New Media and the Forensic Imagination. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2008.

Kittler, Friedrich.  Literature, Media, Information Systems. Amsterdam: G & B Arts International, 1997.

—. “Code (or, How You Can Write Something Differently)” Trans. Tom Morrison with Florian Cramer. Software Studies.

Knuth, Donald. “Literate Programming (1984)” Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford, California, 1992.

Kress, Gunther and Robert Hodge. Language as Ideology. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.

Kryssa, Joasia and Grzesiek Sedek. “Source Code” Software Studies.

Latour, Bruno. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory. Oxford: Oxford UP: 2005.

Lessig, Lawrence. Code. New York: Basic Books, 2006.

Lichty, Patrick. “Grasping at Bits: Art and Intellectual Control in the Digital Age,” 2000.

Loui, R.P. In Praise of Scripting: Real Programming Pragmatism. Computer, Volume 41, Issue 7, pp. 22-26. Washington University, St. Louis. 15 July 2008.

MacKenzie, Adrian. “The Problem of Computer Code: Leviathan or Common Power?” Institute for Cultural Research, Lancaster University. 10 August 2006.

Manovich, Lev. “Import/Export” Software Studies.

––. The Language of New Media. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P, 2001.

Marino, Mark C. “Critical Code Studies” Electronic Book Review. 2006. Available at

––. “Of Sex, Cylons, & Worms: A Critical Code Study of Heteronormativity.”  Leonardo Electronic Almanac. 17:2.  Available at

—. “The Ppg256 Perl Primer.” Emerging Language Practices Issue 1 (2010) : n. pag. Web. 31 May 2011.

Marino, Mark, and Max Feinstein. “Critical Code Studies Conference – Week Two Introduction.” Electronic Book Review (2011) : n. pag. Web. 31 May 2011.

Mateas, Michael. “Procedural Literacy: Educating the New Media Practitioner.” On The Horizon – The Strategic Planning Resource for Education Professionals. 13. 2 (2005): 101-111.

—. “Weird Languages” Software Studies.

Mateas, Michael and Nick Montfort. “A Box, Darkly: Obfuscation, Weird Languages, and Code Aesthetics” Digital Arts and Culture. Copenhagen, 2005.

Miller, Toby. The Well-Tempered Self: Citizenship, Culture, and the Postmodern Subject. Parallax: Re-Visions of Culture and Society. Ed. Gerald Prince Stephen G. Nichols, and Wendy Steiner. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1993.

Montfort, Nick. “Obfuscated Code” Software Studies.

Montfort, Nick, Patsy Baudoin, John Bell, Ian Bogost, Jeremy Douglass, Mark C. Marino, Michael Mateas, Casey Reas, Mark Sample, and Noah Vawter. 10 PRINT CHR$(205.5+RND(1)); : GOTO 10. The MIT Press, 2012.

Montfort, Nick and Noah Wardrip-Fruin. “The New Media Reader.” Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2003.

Montfort, Nick, and Ian Bogost. Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2009.

Parikka, Jussi, and Tony Sampson, eds. The Spam Book: On Viruses, Porn, and Other Anomalies from the Dark Side of Digital Culture. Cresskill, NJ: The Hampton Press, 2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2010.

Paul, Christiane. “Digital Art (World of Art).” Thames and Hudson, 2003.

Raley, Rita. “Code.surface || Code.depth” (2006). Available at

—.“Interferences: [Net.Writing] and the Practice of Codework” Electronic Book Review. 8 September 2002. 1 April 2005.

Raymond, Eric S. Unix and Object-Oriented Languages. 2003.

Robinson, Derek. “Variable” Software Studies.

Rotman, Brian. Signifying Nothing: The Semiotics of Zero. Stanford UP: Stanford, 1987.

Schwartz, Evan I. and John W. Verity. “SOFTWARE MADE SIMPLE.” BusinessWeek: Online Magazine, September 30, 1991.

Searle, John. “Minds, Brains, and Programs” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3. 417-424

Seiwald, Christopher. “Seven Pillars of Pretty Code” Perforce. 17 March 2005.

Serres, Michel. Les Origines de la Géometrie Tiers Livre des Fondations. Paris: Flammarion, 1993.

Shklovsky, Victor. “Art as Technique.” Russian Formalist Criticism: Four Essays. Trans. Lee T. Lemon and Marion J. Reis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965, 3-24.

Sierra, Kathy. “Code Like a Girl” Creating Passionate Users. 29 March 2006. 15 October 2006.

Singletary, Mark. “Hello World” ACM ‘Hello World’ Project. Lousiana Tech ACM. Ed. Himanshu Chhetri, Leopolf Keiser, Chuka Okoye, Estabon Fiallos. last updated: 26 October 2005. 4 March 2005.

Sondheim, Alan. “Part 1: On Code and Codework” Plantext Tools. 2005. 6 March 2006.

Swartz, Paul. “Division III Proposal: Programs as Literature” 16 September 2006. 1 November 1 2006.

Thacker, Eugene, and Alexander Galloway. The Exploit: A Theory of Networks. University of Minnesota Press, 2007. Web. 19 Nov. 2010.

Thomas, Douglas. Personal Interview. 12 November 2005.

Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Touchstone, 1995.

Tushnet, Mark. “Critical Legal Studies: a Political History” The Yale Law Journal. (110:5) 1991. 1515-1544. 3 June 2005.

Wall, Larry. “Perl, the first postmodern computer language.” Linux World. March 3, 1999.

Wardrip-Fruin, Noah. Expressive Processing: Digital Fictions, Computer Games, and Software Studies. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009.

Wattenberg, Martin. “A Net Art Idea Line” Whitney Museum of American Art, 2002.

Wiener, Norbert. God and Golem, Inc. A comment on Certain Points where Cybernetics Impinges upon Religion. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964.

Westfall, Ralph. “Technical Opinion: Hello, World considered harmful” Communications of the ACM. (44:10) 2001. 129-130

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